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Replacement Parts Guide

A new ‘Good Practice Guide for Supply of Replacement Parts for use on Heavy Vehicles’ has been produced by the ARTSA Institute with funding from the National Heavy Vehicle Regulator’s Heavy Vehicle Safety Initiative, aims to boost safety for heavy vehicle drivers and all road users.

The Guide aims to raise awareness of suppliers, purchasers and installers of safety-critical replacement parts about supply practices.

Get your copy of the Guide here


SECTION F - Safety Level Classification of Common Part Types

Find the Safety Level of parts by checking the list below.

(These lists are not exhaustive)

F.1 Level 1 Parts


Auxiliary – Safety 1              

Part Type

Technical Requirements

Safety and Compliance Risk

Vehicle jack

ACCC reference to AS 2615:2016, Hydraulic trolly jacks.

Vehicle drops when being maintained.

Burst valve protection for hydraulic lifting cylinders

(VSB6 Code R1).

Unexpected drop in the event of a hydraulic hoe bursting

(standards inside brackets are relevant to the system that the item is in)


Brake System Components – Safety 1

Part Type

Technical Requirements

Safety and Compliance Risk

Spring-brake control valve on the truck

ADR 35 performance requirements exist, (VSB6 G4).

Unexpected release of parking brake

Spring-brake relay valves

No. (ADRs 35&38#, VSB6 G3 & G4).

Unexpected application of the parking brake

Service brake foot valve on the truck

No. (ADRs 35&38#, VSB6 G3).

Loss of service brake effect

Service brake relay valve

No. (ADRs 35&38#, VSB6 G3 & G4).

Loss of service brake effect

Vehicle Stability Control (VSC). Also called Electronic Stability Control (ESC).

Yes. ADR 35 and 38 design and functional requirements exist for VSC. 

Loss of vehicle stability control protection

# ADR s35 & 38 require brake parts to comply with a national or international standard {AS, SAE, BS, JIS, DIN, ISO, UNECE}, but are not specific about the standard.

(standards inside brackets are relevant to the system that the item is in)


No in the Technical Requirements column means there is no technical standard that is specified in an Australian vehicle standard regulation, and no technical standard has been identified here.


Mechanical Couplings and subcomponents – Safety 1

Part Type

Technical Requirements*

Safety and Compliance Risk

Automatic Pin Coupling

CRN or UNECE, ADR 62 (VSB6 P1).

Possible trailer separation

Ball coupling

CRN or UNECE, ADR 62, (VSG16, VS6 P1).

Possible trailer separation

Fifth Wheel

CRN or UNECE, ADR 62, (VSB6 P2).

Possible trailer separation

Fifth Wheel angle

Adequate strength, (VSB6 P2).

Possible trailer separation

Fifth wheel mounting plate

Adequate strength, (VSB6 P2).

Possible trailer separation

Trailer skid plate

Adequate strength, (VSB6 P2).

Loss of kingpin leading to trailer separation

Pintle hook coupling

CRN or ECE, ADR 62,  (VSB6 P1).

Possible trailer separation

Towbar

CRN. ADR 62, (VSB6 P1).

Possible trailer separation

Towing kingpin

CRN or UNECE, ADR 62, (VSB6 P1).

Possible trailer separation

Turntable

Adequate strength. CRN is not issued for a turntable alone. (VSB6 P1).

Possible trailer separation

(standards inside brackets are relevant to the system that the item is in)


Rear Axle and Suspension – Safety 1

Part Type

Technical Requirements

Safety and Compliance Risk

Rear axle beam

Adequate strength, (VSB6 D1).

Loss of directional control

Rear suspension structural elements including sway bars

Adequate strength, (VSB6 D1).

Loss of directional control

Rear differential

Adequate strength. (VSB6 D2, adequate gradeability and startablity).

Loss of directional control. Loss of drive capability.


(standards inside brackets are relevant to the system that the item is in)



Steering System and Front Axle – Safety 1

Part Type

Technical Requirements

Safety and Compliance Risk

Front axle beam

Adequate strength, (VSB6 E1).

Loss of steering control

Front suspension spring (mechanical or airbag)

Adequate strength, (VSB6 E1).


Loss of directional control

Front suspension U-bolts

Adequate strength, (VSB6 E1).

Loss of directional control

Steering Arm, Pitman Arm and Draglink

Adequate strength and dimensions, (VSB6 E2).

Loss of directional control

Steering box

Adequate rating, (VSB6 E2).

Loss of directional control

Steering hoses

Adequate pressure rating, (VSB6 E2).

Loss of directional control

Steering kingpin

Adequate strength, (VSB6 E2).

Loss of steering control

Universal joints for steering column

Adequate strength, (VSB6 E2).

Loss of directional control

(standards inside brackets are relevant to the system that the item is in)



Tyres and Wheels – Safety 1

Part Type

Technical Requirements

Safety and Compliance Risk

Steer Tyre

UNECE R24, (VSB E3).

Loss of steering control

Front wheel rims

DOT, (VSB6 E3).

Loss of steering control

(standards inside brackets are relevant to the system that the item is in)


F.2 Level 2 Parts


Brake System Components – Safety 2

Part Type

Technical Requirements

Safety and Compliance Risk

Air brake valves generally

No / Trailer SARN  (ADRs 35&38#, VSB6 G3 & G4 VSB6 G4).

Loss of braking performance

Antilock Brake System (ABS)

Design and performance standards exist in ADRs 35 and 38, (VSB6 G3, G4).

Loss of wheel lock-up protection. Loss of B-double prime mover legal status.

Brake Actuator

Refer to ATA/ITC TAP Compliant brake chambers V2.1, January 2017. ADRs 35 & 38 require parts to comply to a national or international standard but are not specific. Trailer SARN.

Loss of service brake or park brake action at one axle

Brake Air tank

Note that large volume tanks may be pressure vessels under OH&S regulations. Capacity requirements exist in ADRs 35 & 38, Trailer SARN.

Loss of service brake or park brake action at multiple axles

Brake drum

No/Trailer SARN (ADRs 35&38#, VSB6 G3 & G4, ECE Reg 90).

Loss of service brake or park brake action at one axle

Brake warning lamps

No. ARR 35 specifies functionality and colour.

Loss of warning information

Disc brake calliper

No/Trailer SARN (ADRs 35&38#, VSB6 G3 & G4).

Loss of service brake or park brake action at one axle

Disc brake pad

No/Trailer SARN. (ADRs 35&38#, VSB6 G3 & G4, ECE Reg 90).

Loss of service brake or park brake action at one axle

Disc brake rotor

No/Trailer SARN. (ADRs 35&38#, VSB6 G3 & G4).

Loss of service brake or park brake action at one axle

Drum brake shoe

No/ Trailer SARN. (ADRs 35&38#, VSB6 G3 & G4).

Loss of service brake or park brake action at one axle

Exhaust brake

No. ADR 80 noise limits exist

Loss of some braking affect

Brake air hoses

No/Trailer SARN. (ADRs 35&38#, VSB6 G3 & G4).

Loss of brake function at multiple axles

S-cam mechanism for drum brakes

No/Trailer SARN. (ADRs 35&38#, VSB6 G3 & G4).

Degraded brake performance or wear performance at one axle.

(standards inside brackets are relevant to the system that the item is in)


# ADRs 35 & 38 require brake parts to comply with a national or international standard {AS, SAE, BS, JIS, DIN, ISO, UNECE}, but are not specific about the standard.

No in the Technical Requirements column means there is no technical standard that is specified in an Australian vehicle standard regulation, and no technical standard has been identified here.


Cabin Components – Safety 2

Part Type

Technical Requirements

Safety and Compliance Risk

Driver seat with integral seatbelt

Yes. ADRs 3, 4, 5 are applicable, (VSB6 K1, K2, K3).

Loss of driver seatbelt protection

Seatbelts

Yes. CRN or UNECE,

(VSB6 K1, K2, K3).

Non-compliance. Loss of occupant safety protection

Side window glass

Yes. ADR 8. AS2080, UNECE R34, BS AU178, JIS 3211, (VSB6, K1, K2, K3).

Non-compliance.  Loss of occupant safety protection

Speedometer

Yes. ADR 18 requirements to be met.

Loss of accurate speed indication results in safety vulnerability

Windscreen

Yes. ADR 8. AS2080, UNECE R34, BS AU178, JIS 3211, (VSB6, K1, K2, K3).

Non-compliance.  Loss of occupant safety protection. Poor visibility of road

Windscreen wiper rubbers

No, (ADR 42).

Loss of windscreen wiping effectiveness as specified in ADR42. Premature wear 

Steering wheel

No, (ADR 42).

Difficulty for driver to grip wheel.  Some jurisdictions require steering wheel diameter to be at least 300mm irrespective of vehicle category.

Inadequate spline hardness could result in loss of steering control. 

(standards inside brackets are relevant to the system that the item is in)



Chassis Components – Safety 2

Part Type

Technical Requirements

Safety and Compliance Risk

Chassis rail

No. Adequate strength. Match OEM chassis rail material grade, (VSB6 H4).

Cracking of a chassis rail could lead to poor road handling or loss of directional control.

Cross-members and cross-member brackets

No, match OEM cross-member strength, (VSB6 H4).

Cracking of cross-members could lead to poor road handling. 

Front Underrun Protection (FUPS) bar

Yes. ADR 84, CRN, (VSB6 H6 & H7).

Non-compliance with ADR 84 under-run requirements

Bullbar

(ADR 42), (VSB6 H4, H7)

Headlights and direction indicator lights obscured. Protrusion risk to other road users.

(standards inside brackets are relevant to the system that the item is in)



Engine and Drivetrain Components – Safety 2

Part Type

Technical Requirements

Safety and Compliance Risk

Driveshaft 

(VSB6 C1)

Loss of traction. In extreme cases, mechanical damage to the chassis and/or loss of parts endangering other road users.

Universal joints in tailshaft

(VSB6 C1)

Loss of traction. Mechanical damage if driveshaft falls off. Debris on roadway.

Electric starter motor cables

No. Fire retardant properties desirable.

Fire risk

Exhaust Muffler

ADR 80 & 83 performance requirements, (VSB6 A4).

Non-compliance with ADR requirements.

Exhaust pipe

ADR 80 & 83 performance requirements, (VSB6 A4).

Non-compliance with ADR requirements.

Diesel Engine

SARN, ADR 80, (ADR 65 speed limiting requirements exist), (VSB6 A1, A5).

Emission compliance and speed limiting non-compliance.

Steering pump

No, (Force rating), (VSB6 E2).

Loss of steering system effect

Power steering hoses

SAE & DIN standards exist but are not mandated, (VSB6 E2).

Loss of steering performance

Transmission

No. (ADR 65 speed limiting requirements exist), (VSB6 B1).

Non-compliance with speed limiting requirements, and noise performance.

Turbocharger

No, (ADR 83), (VSB6 A3).

Non-compliance with ADR 83 emissions requirements.

Air compressor

ADR 64, (ADRs 35&38#, VSB6 G3 & G4).

Loss of braking performance.

Non-compliance with Roadtrain air supply performance.

Hydraulic hoses

SAE & DIN standards exist but are not mandated, (VSB6 R1).

Fire risk. Risk of dropping body or load

(standards inside brackets are relevant to the system that the item is in)



Lighting – Safety 2

Part Type

Technical Requirements

Safety and Compliance Risk

Headlamps and taillamps

Yes. CRN, ADR 46, or UNECE.

Non-compliant headlights. Loss of some visibility

Fog lights

Yes. CRN applicable to ADRs 50 & 52.


Signal Lamps 

Yes. CRN applicable to ADRs 1, 6, 45, 48, 49, 51, or UNECE. 

Non-compliance. Loss of correct visibility to other road users.

(standards inside brackets are relevant to the system that the item is in)



Load carrying and Tiedown Components – Safety 2

Part Type

Technical Requirements

Safety and Compliance Risk

Load tie-downs

No. Load Restraint Guide id relevant.

Breakage of tie-downs leading to moving loads.

Side curtains

Yes. Load Restraint Guide is relevant.

Loss of load

Side gates for trays

Yes. Load Restraint Guide is relevant.

Loss of load

(standards inside brackets are relevant to the system that the item is in)



Wheels, Axles and Suspensions – Safety 2

Part Type

Technical Requirements

Safety and Compliance Risk

Wheel rims (Not front axle)

Yes, DOT marking 

Cracking of wheel rims. Wheel detachment

Non-steering axle

No, (VSB6 D1)

Breakdown. Loss of directional control

Wheel bearing

No. 

Loss of steering control. Fire risk.

Shock absorber

No. (Road Friendly Suspension status must be maintained), (VSB6 D1, D2, F1, F2).

Non-compliance with RFS requirements. Loss of suspension effectiveness.

Suspension Airbag

No. (Road Friendly Suspension status must be maintained), (VSB6 D1, D2).

Loss of suspension effect at one location. Poor road handling. Non-compliance with RFS requirements.

(standards inside brackets are relevant to the system that the item is in)



F.3 Level 3 Parts


Chassis Components – Safety 3

Part Type

Technical Requirements

Safety and Compliance Risk

Brake hose clamps

No.

Loss of brake function, mainly at one axle.

No in the Technical Requirements column means there is no technical standard that is specified in an Australian vehicle standard regulation, and no technical standard has been identified here.


Cabin Components – Safety 3

Part Type

Technical Requirements

Safety and Compliance Risk

Cabin structural members

No.

Cracking of the cabin

Sunvisor

Not for heavy vehicle categories.

Loss of occupant protection. Reduction in visibility in some circumstances.

Cabin steps

OH & S safety considerations.

Breakage causing loss of functionality.

Grab handles

OH&S safety considerations.

Breakage causing loss of functionality.


Electrical Components – Safety 3

Part Type

Technical Requirements

Safety and Compliance Risk

Batteries

No, but cables need to be restrained.

Fire and explosion risk

Electric looms generally

No, but cables need to be restrained.

Fire risk

Electrical circuit breakers

No, (ADR 64), (Manual reset circuit breakers specified for B-double and Roadtrain circuits).

Fire risk. 

Electrical fuses

No.

Fire risk

Electrical leads for trailers

No, (pin positions specified in ADR 42)

Fire risk.  Loss of lighting functions on trailer. 

(standards inside brackets are relevant to the system that the item is in)



Engine and Drivetrain Components – Safety 3

Part Type

Technical Requirements

Safety and Compliance Risk

Air filter

No, (ADR 80, VSB6 A2).

Loss of emissions compliance because intake restriction if excessive. Engine dusting risk 

Instrumentation generally (not speedometer)

No.

Loss of driving information. Inaccurate readings.

Radiator

No, (Engine manufacturer's cooling requirements exist).

Loss of engine performance

Retarder

No.

Loss of braking assistance

Oil filter

No.

Loss of engine safety

Engine-Brake

No, (ADR 80).

Loss of braking assistance

Bug Deflectors

No (ADR 42, TIC Code of Practice re Adequate Field of Vision).

Loss of road visibility on long-bonneted trucks

Hydraulic controls generally

No. (OH&S requirements exist).

Safety control performance

Fuel filter

No, (ADR 80).

Loss of filter performance. Fuel delivery restriction leading to loss of power

Thermal fan clutch

No, (ADR 83).

Loss of engine performance

Fuel tank addition

No.

Risk of fuel loss onto roadway

Starter motor

No.

Loss of starting function

Intercooler 

No, (ADR 80, VSB6 A2).

Change of air intake restriction level could alter emissions status

(standards inside brackets are relevant to the system that the item is in)


Lighting – Safety 3

Part Type

Technical Requirements

Safety and Compliance Risk

Reflectors

Yes. CRN - ADR47), or UNECE 

Non-compliant visibility for other road users.

Beacon lightbar

Colour and visibility requirements exist in ADR 44

Loss of performance that is mandatory for some special-purpose vehicles.

Flashing amber warning lights

Colour and visibility requirements exist in ADR 44

Loss of performance that is mandatory for some special-purpose vehicles.

(standards inside brackets are relevant to the system that the item is in)


Wheels, Axles and Suspensions – Safety 3

Part Type

Technical Requirements

Safety and Compliance Risk

Metal mudguards

No (ADR 42)

Non-compliance with ADR 42. Loss of mudguard.

Plastic mudguards

No (ADR 42)

Non-compliance with ADR 42. Loss of mudguard.

Rear-axle tyres

Yes, ECE R24

Poor tyre grip.

May be relevant to Performance-Based Standards (PBS) status

Panhard Rods for Suspension

No

Inadequate strength could result in cracking of the axle.

Suspension bushes

No

Inadequate resilience could result in premature failure and loss of directional control.

(standards inside brackets are relevant to the system that the item is in)



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